They result from design factors and are therefore determined prior to manufacture. Class vs Individual Evidence In your own words, define… Class Characteristics: Physical qualities that a group of items or people share Individual Characteristics: Physical qualities unique to an individual item Complete the data table by visiting the 15 stations around the room and determining if each item is class or individual evidence. It can take on almost any form: as large as a building, as fl eeting as an odor, as small as a hair, or even submicroscopic, like DNA evidence. Thus, while the class characteristics may be identical on bullets fired by two different weapons, the individual characteristics will be different. Class evidence is the category for most evidence. CLASS AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTIC EVIDENCE Class: a group of objects or persons with characteristic physical evidence common to it Examples include soil and hair Individual characteristics can be identified as having originated with a particular person or source Learning Objectives-Nature of Physical Evidence A. Explain the difference between Identification vs. All characteristics that are common to a group are called class characteristics. In combination with other evidence in a case, it can demonstrate that a limited number of people had all of the characteristics associated with evidence left by a perpetrator. Both: They both invlove changes in the state of matter. Guns account for many of the violent crimes today, but the crime scene and firearms evidence can reveal the … Define things by their use Developing a sense of humor Communicate best within a small group of peers May need guidance of adult when starting a new task Physical Social-Emotional Cognitive Middle Years Grades 2-3 (7-9 years) Enthusiastic about games Experiencing improvement in both gross and fine motor skills Possess a high activity level The value of hair evidence is related to the variability of hair characteristics between individuals in the population, which can be visualized through the use of comparison microscopy. Class evidence is material in a criminal investigation that can be linked with a group of people, but not a specific individual. Physical evidence may consist of all sorts of prints such as fingerprints, footprints, handprints, tidemarks, cut marks, tool marks, etc. Individual Evidence. This type of evidence may be used to narrow down a list of possible suspects. Physical evidence is generally much more 2. The answer has to do with chemical and physical changes of matter. ... it is possible to distinguish one type of glass from another based on the different chemical and physical properties. Comparison C. Define Individual vs. Class Characteristics- Give examples List the common types of physical evidence B. Appreciate the value of class evidence as it relates to a criminal investigation List and explain the function of national databases available to forensic scientists Understand the contributions the forensic pathologist, forensic entomologist, and anthropologist can make to a death investigation Individual characteristics are properties associated with a common source to a high degree of certainty. The following are characteristics that are noticible when a physical change is happening. Class, however, still is defined based on the ownership of crucial resources (economic, or political) and decides the status of an individual or a group. What is the difference between a chemical property and a physical property? These are only the some of the properties of glass. Examples of class evidence include blood type, fibers, and paint. I assume you're talking about the concept of individual vs. class characteristics in forensic studies and criminology. Class vs. Examination of some physical evidence is conducted by making impressions in plaster, taking images of marks, or lifting the fingerprints from objects encountered. Physical evidence is any object or material that is relevant in a crime; also known as indirect ... items that share properties or characteristics ... the ability of evidence to prove something that is material to a crime . Such as bruise, diffused bite mark, a smoking ring or, a faint bite mark. If evidence is determined to possess class characteristics it may serve as a mechanism to reduce the number of suspects, but it cannot be directly connected to one person or source. In addition to markings on the bullets, the magazine, firing pin, extractor, ejector, and breech face of a weapon may all impart class and individual markings to a cartridge case or primer. In order to classify levels of evidence for the different categories listed above, it was necessary to derive the following table of “Classifications of Evidence”. For example, a branch of biology called virology studies viruses, which exhibit some of the characteristics of living entities but lack others. Characteristics of Social Stratification. Physical Change: Only Changes the appearance but not the chemical component. Class characteristic – properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and not a single source. Types of deductive reasoning Law of detachment . Dissolving, breaking and melting is included, but this change is easily reversible. Introduction to Physical Evidence I. Pre-class activities A. “The best evidence is anything that can be linked to a unique, single, specific source. Individual characteristics are properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source with an extremely high degree of certainty. Characteristics of Glass. It turns out that although viruses can attack living organisms, cause diseases, and even reproduce, they do not meet the criteria that biologists use to define life. Class characteristics are those characteristics that result from the manufacturing process, such as physical size, design, and mold characteristics. Texture can be different depending on the physical change it has expierenced. What are individual characteristics? Similarly, evidence that possesses individual characteristics may be referred to as individual evidence. Physical Evidence A successful crime investigation depends upon the collection and analysis of various kinds of evidence . Class evidence is evidence associated with a group and not a single source. Class characteristic - properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and not a single source. Evidence with class characteristics help narrow the ability to identify an object or person to fewer possibilities and can also be used to exclude an object or person with absolute certainty. Measurable characteristics of matter may be categorized as either chemical or physical properties. Announcements and Assignments for next week II. The variety of physical evidence is virtually unlimited, as is the uniqueness of the crime. Firearms evidence is similar to the types of characteristics of fingerprints. First, the class characteristics are compared. Physical evidence usually involves objects found at the scene of a crime. Same color, same texture, same material, same size. Give an example of an individual characteristic? Working class and middle class are terms that are used frequently when discussing politics, economics and socio-economic conditions in … They both have energy changes. Workers: constituted the workers or the labor class. To use these Classes of Evidence, one must identify the Type of study, and then classify it according to the following table, e.g., Type = Reliability, Classification = Class 1-2. They are distinct and an extremely useful form of forensic evidence. A single statement is made and a hypothesis (P) is proposed. individual differences from other (ingroup) persons. Social identity refers to social categorizations of self and others, self-categories which define the individual in terms of his or her shared similarities with members of certain social categories in contrast to other social categories. The large piece of glass fits exactly to the bottle; it is individual evidence. If this is the case, another known print may be compared to the unknown print. 4 Classifying Characteristics Physical evidence has two classifying characteristics, Individual Characteristics and Class Characteristics. Class II: This pattern of injury referred to as a single arch bite or the partial bite mark as it has some individual and some class characteristics. Class characteristics – Measurable features of a specimen that indicate a restricted group source. The individual x is a man. Both class and individual evidence have value; however, it typically takes considerably more class evidence (and time for collection and analysis) to have the same weight and significance as a single item of individual evidence. The four types of evidence is physical evidence, documentary evidence, demonstrative evidence and testimony. In the context of this module, general rifling characteristics of the barrel of a firearm are the class characteristics of interest. 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